There is and There are

Нам не нужно упоминать дважды is поэтому второе is убираем:
There is a book and (is) a pen on the table.

В следующем предложении убираем ‘is’, а’are’ оставляем:
There are some books and (is)a pen on the table.

В следующем предложении убираем ‘are’, а’is’ оставляем:
There is a book and (are) some pens on the table.

The Present Perfect or the Past Simple

Когда следует использовать Present Perfect, а не Past Simple? Например, «I have eaten», вместо «I ate» ?

Иногда слушатель должен выходить за рамки фразы и понять «намерение» говорящего.

Past Simple “ I ate ” акцентирует внимание на значении слова «eat» и передает момент сразу. Слушатель может легко интерпретировать смысл слова «eat» без каких-либо задних мыслей.

Present Perfect “I have eaten” не всегда говорит о прямом значении слова «eat». Вместо этого, это может быть одним из ваших намерений — вы все равно можете чувствовать себя голодным, или Вы на самом деле не ели, но говорите так, чтобы избежать еды с кем-то, или вы, возможно, решили пропустить вашу еду, решили ответить положительно чтобы избежать дальнейших разговоров или действий.
 Я уже поел / Я являюсь поевшим 

Stative and dynamic meanings

What is an action verb?

Action verbs express something that you do — you start the action and then you stop the action.

He is writing a letter. He starts the action when he picks up the pen and starts to write. When he puts the pen down, he stops the action.

More action (dynamic) verbs:
read, come, go, work, get, make, take, put, study.
(Most verbs are actions.)

What is a stative verb?

Stative verbs express situations. There is no need for action once the situation has started. You do not need to do anything. States are always true for as long as they continue.


(1) He is a teacher.
This is a state — a situation. He is always a teacher. He is a teacher after the lesson. He is a teacher when he is in the pub or when he is asleep in bed. He is a teacher until he changes his job.

He is teaching English.
This is an action. It starts when the lesson starts and finishes when the lesson finishes.

(2)  She has two children
This is a state. It started when the children were born. She does not have to do anything more. It is always true.

She is having a shower
This is an action. She has to do something. The action starts when she gets into the shower and turns on the water. When she turns off the water and gets out of the shower, the action is finished.

Common examples of stative verbs (or verbs with stative meanings)

Verbs expressing thoughts, feelings and senses:
like, love, hate, know, understand, feel, see, hear etc.

Verbs that are used to describe things or express possession:
be, have, own, need, seem, look, taste, smell, sound

Other common stative verbs (this is not a complete list)

believe, belong, contain, deserve, doubt, envy, exist, forget, imagine,
include, involve, possess, prefer, realize, recognize, suppose, suspect, want,wish

Confusing areas — verbs with both stative and dynamic meanings

As noted above with the example of ‘have’, some verbs have both dynamic and
stative meanings.

These include the following:

Verbs of the senses;

see (with your eyes)
see (visit)

taste (sense)
taste (try something to sample the taste)

smell (sense)
smell (put something next to your nose to sample the smell)

Verb to be

He is nice (permanent description)
He is being nice(temporary behaviour)

Love (general feeling)
She loves skiing

Love (enjoy)*
I’m loving it

*This meaning is not very common in British English and is included here simply
because students always ask about the use of this verb in the advertising slogan of a well-known fast food chain.

Stative (or State) Verb List

like know belong
love realise fit
hate suppose contain
want mean consist
need understand seem
prefer believe depend
agree remember matter
mind recognise see
own appear look (=seem)
sound taste smell
hear astonish deny
disagree please impress
satisfy promise surprise
doubt think (=have an opinion) feel (=have an opinion)
wish imagine concern
dislike be have
deserve involve include
lack measure (=have length etc) possess
owe weigh (=have weight)  

A verb which isn’t stative is called a dynamic verb, and is usually an action.

Some verbs can be both stative and dynamic:

be is usually a stative verb, but when it is used in the continuous it means ‘behaving’ or ‘acting’

  • you are stupid = it’s part of your personality
  • you are being stupid = only now, not usually
  • think (stative) = have an opinion
    I think that coffee is great
  • think (dynamic) = consider, have in my head
    what are you thinking about? I’m thinking about my next holiday
  • have (stative) = own
    I have a car
  • have (dynamic) = part of an expression
    I’m having a party / a picnic / a bath / a good time / a break
  • see (stative) = see with your eyes / understand
    I see what you mean
    I see her now, she’s just coming along the road
  • see (dynamic) = meet / have a relationship with
    I’ve been seeing my boyfriend for three years
    I’m seeing Robert tomorrow
  • taste (stative) = has a certain taste
    This soup tastes great
    The coffee tastes really bitter
  • taste (dynamic) = the action of tasting
    The chef is tasting the soup

    (‘taste’ is the same as other similar verbs such as ‘smell’)


We use a/an with singular countable nouns:
• when we talk about one thing or person but we don’t say exactly which one:
Lucy’s reading a book.
There’s a supermarket near my house.
• to talk about someone’s job:
My mother is a teacher.
• to describe people or things:
Pip is a nice girl. That’s a good idea.
• in expressions with numbers:
I sleep eight hours a night.
Apples cost €3 a kilo.
Remember: We don’t use a/an with uncountable nouns (water, milk) or plural nouns (apples, books).
We can use the with singular, plural and uncountable nouns. We use the:
• when it is clear which person or thing we mean:
The boy over there is my brother. Where’s the sugar?
• when there is only one:
The Earth is round. Peter is in the garden.
• with the names of oceans (the Pacific Ocean), seas (the Red Sea), rivers (the Nile), mountain ranges (the Andes) and deserts (the Sahara Desert).
• with the names of some countries: the USA (United States of America), the UK (United Kingdom), the Netherlands
• with musical instruments:
He plays the piano.
• in some time expressions:
in the morning/afternoon/evening.
at the weekend.
But we say:
in January, at night, on Mondays
Zero article
We don’t use a or the:
• with names of people (Peter, Mr Hardy), continents (Africa), most countries (Spain), cities (Madrid), streets (West Street), lakes (Lake Michigan) and mountains (Mount Everest).
• with sports (basketball), games (chess), school subjects (Maths), meals (dinner) and languages (English).
• in these expressions:
Beth is at home/at school/in bed.
I go to school every day. I go by bus.

Согласование глаголов

The infinitive
The infinitive is the basic form of a verb. We use two forms of the infinitive
• the infinitive with ‘to’
I want to play a game.
• the infinitive without ‘to’
You’d better take a map with you.
We use the infinitive with ‘to’
• after these verbs:
advise expect plan
agree force prefer
 allow   forget   promise
 appear   hate 
She refuses to speak to him.
 arrange   help   seem

They asked me to play the piano at the school


 I hope to see you soon.

 begin   learn  stop 
 choose   like   want
 continue  manage 
  would like
We would like to have lunch now, please.
 decide   offer   would love
• with the expression too + adjective / adverb + infinitive
She’s too tired to go out tonight.
• The word ‘too’ before an adjective / adverb gives a negative meaning to the sentence.
It means ‘more than it should be’ or ‘more than is necessary*.
He is too young to drive. (= he isn’t allowed to drive because of his age)
• with the expression (not) adjective / adverb + enough + infinitive
It’s warm enough to play outside.
I am not tall enough to reach the shelf.
• The word ‘enough’ gives a positive meaning to the sentence. It means ‘just as much as it should be’ or ‘just as much as is necessary’.
He’s good enough to be a professional musician. (= he can be a professional musician if he wants to)
• with the expression it + to be + adjective + infinitive
It’s nice to go on a short holiday when you can.
It was interesting to learn that the temple dated back to the 4th century BC.
• with the expression subject + to be + adjective + infinitive
They were happy to offer me the job.
I’m sorry to hear you are not well.
She’s glad to be in the play.
Infinitive without ‘to’
We use the infinitive without ‘to’
• after the verbs let and make
I’ll let you use my computer if you are careful.
My music teacher made me play the same piece three times.
• with the expression would rather
I’d rather do this on my own if you don’t mind.
He’d rather stay in a hotel.
• with the expression had better
You’d better book the tickets as soon as possible.
She’d better not sing. She has an awful voice.
• after some modal verbs, such as could, may, might, must should
He must call his parents right now.
You shouldn’t wear my T-shirt without my permission.
• The verb help can be followed by both the infinitive with ‘to’ and the infinitive without ‘to’ It makes no difference in meaning.
Will you help me carry these bogs?
Will you help me to carry these bags?

Согласование времён

     Если в главном предложении глагол имеет форму прошедшего времени, а в придаточном дополнительном выражается действие, одновременное действию главного, то глагол в придаточном дополнительном также должен иметь форму прошедшего времени.

He asked me how I was. — Он спросил меня, как дела.
I didn’t know she was married. — Я не знал, что она замужем.
There are no wolves here. — He said there were. — Здесь нет волков. — Он сказал, что есть.
Many people thought the movie was no good. — Многие считали, что фильм плохой.
Nobody understood what he said. — Никто не понимал, что он говорит.
They told me that she was out. — Они сказали мне, что её нет.
Did he realize that the car was going too fast? — Он понимал, что автомобиль едет слишком быстро?
Everyone thought she was rich. — Все считали, что она богатая.
They wondered why he always wore a yellow jacket. — Им было интересно, почему он всегда носит жёлтый пиджак.
We knew she was a very interesting person. — Мы знали, что она очень интересный человек.
I said that it was time to go to bed. — Я сказал, что пора ложиться спать.

              В примерах в придаточном предложении английскому глаголу в форме прошедшего времени соответствует русский глагол в форме настоящего времени.

The Alphabet / Английский алфавит

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Английский алфавит с произношением и картинками:
английский алфавит



Imperative — Повелительное наклонение

to go идти Go! Иди!
to throw бросать Throw! Брось!
to draw рисовать Draw! Рисуй!
to open открывать Open! Открой!
to look смотреть Look! Смотри!
to drink пить Drink! Пей!
to take брать Take! Бери!
Повелительное наклонение (императив) глагола используется для выражения просьб, приказов, требований.
Отрицание Don’t ставится перед смысловым глаголом.


Don’t buy this book!
Don’t open the door!
Don’t ask Jim!
Don’t sleep!
Don’t talk!
Don’t work!

Для вежливых просьб или разрешений используется слово please («пожалуйста»), которое можно ставить как в начало, так и в конец предложения:

Please, come in!
Ask Jim, please!
Sleep, please!
Study the lesson, please!
Work, please!

Please, ask Jim!
Please, sleep!
Please, study the lesson!
Please, work!

И для вежливых отрицательных просьб или запретов:

Don’t read, please!
Don’t sleep, please!
Don’t talk, please!
Don’t ask Max, please!
Please, don’t read!
Please, don’t sleep!
Please, don’t talk!
Please, don’t ask Max!

These are imperatives:
Go. Help. Come. Wait.

We use the imperative like this:
Come in! Have a cup of tea.
Turn left at the post office.
Don’t touch! It’s hot.

Note that sometimes the imperative is one word, but often we give more information:

Help me!
Help me with my suitcase.

We can say please after an imperative to be more polite:

Help me with my suitcase, please.
Hurry up, please. We’re late.
Come here, please.
Listen to me, please.

We form the negative like this:
Don’t be late.
Don’t forget your books!
Don’t wait for me.

We normally use the short form Don’t.

We use the imperative:

>  to give instructions:
Turn right at the corner.
Don’t forget your passport.

>  to give warnings:
Look out! There’s a car coming.
Be careful! That box is very heavy

>  to give advice:
Have a rest. You look tired.
Take a coat. It’s cold today.
Don’t see that film. It’s terrible!

>  to ask people to do things:
Come in please, and sit down.
Listen to this song. It’s wonderful.
Pass the butter, please.

>  to make offers:

Have another orange juice.
Make yourself a cup of coffee.

>  to ‘wish’ things:

Have a good trip!
Have a nice holiday!


Дополнительные примеры:

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Spell it, pleаse! — Произнесите по буквам это, пожалуйста!

Статьи раздела грамматика

Исчисляемые и не исчисляемые существительные в английском языке

Countable & uncountable nouns

Countable and uncountable nouns
• Countable nouns can be singular or plural. We can count them:
one apple, two apples, three apples
• Uncountable nouns have no plural form. We can’t count them:
yoghurt, milk, water, cheese, money,
one milk, two milk
a/an, some, any, no
• We use a/an with singular countable nouns. We use some, any and no (= not any) with plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns.
We use some in positive sentences.
There are some apples in that bowl.
There’s some milk in the fridge.
We use any in negative sentences and questions.
There aren’t any apples in that bowl.
There isn’t any milk in the fridge.
Are there any apples in that bowl?
Is there any milk in the fridge?
No means ‘not one’ or ‘not any’. We use it with positive verbs.
There are no apples in that bowl.
(= There aren t any apples in that bowl.)
There’s no milk in the fridge.
(= There isn’t any milk in the fridge.)

Countable and uncountable nouns
• We can make uncountable nouns countable. We use the container or the quantity.
We say: a bottle of water, a can of cola, a carton of milk, a loaf of bread, a slice of pizza, a kilo of flour, etc.
a lot of
• We use a lot of with countable and uncountable nouns to talk about a large number or a large quantity.
There are a lot of apples in that bag.
There aren’t a lot of oranges in that bowl.
There’s a lot of food in the fridge.
Is there a lot of cola in that bottle?
(not) much, (not) many
• We use not much and not many in
negative sentences to talk about a small number or a small quantity. We use not much with uncountable nouns and not many with plural countable nouns.
I haven’t got much money.
There aren ‘t many shops here.
We can use much and many in questions.
Have you got much money?
Are there many shops in this town?
How much? How many?
• To ask about quantities, we use how much and how many.
We use how much with uncountable nouns and how many with countable nouns.
A: How many cans of cola has he got? B: Two.
Ac How much bread do we need? B: Three loaves.
• We often use a lot in positive short answers and not much/not many in negative short answers.
A: How much milk do we need?
B: A lot!
A: How much money have you got?
B: Not much.
A: How many cinemas are there in this town?
B: Not many.

Исчисляемые существительные

Исчисляемые существительные обозначают то, что можно сосчитать . Они имеют формы единственного и множественного числа.

Перед существительным в единственном числе употребляется «а«, если оно начинается с согласного звука (k, l, m и т.д.), и «an«, если существительное начинается с гласного звука (а, е, i, о, u).

С исчисляемые существительными мы употребляем some только во множественном числе.

Неисчисляемые существительные


Неисчисляемые существительные обозначают то, что нельзя сосчитать. Как правило, они не имеют формы множественного числа. К ним относятся существительные, обозначающие:


  meat  meat   cheese  cheese
  butter  butter   salt  salt
  pepper  pepper    bacon  bacon
 bread  bread   chocolate  chocolate
 honey  honey   jam  jam

и т.д.


примеры неисчесляемых жидкостей:

coffee  coffee  wine  wine
 milk  milk  lemonade  lemonade
 water  water  petrol  petrol
 tea  tea  oil  oil

и т.д.


 gold    iron  
 silver    wood  

и т.д.

отвлеченные понятия:

beauty   love  

и т.д.


hair   money  
news   snow  
furniture   weather  

и т.д.

С неисчисляемыми существительными мы употребляем some.


Дополнительный материал:

Много существительных, которые в русском языке являются исчисляемыми, в английском языке являются неисчисляемыми:

advice — совет
evidence — доказательство
furniture — мебель
fruit — фрукты
gossip — сплетни
hair — волосы
information — сведения
jewellery — драгоценности
knowledge — знания
money — деньги
news — новости
progress — успехи
research — исследование
scenery — декорации
toast — поджаренный хлеб
traffic — транспорт
trouble — беспокойство
weather — погода
work — работа