There is and There are

Нам не нужно упоминать дважды is поэтому второе is убираем:
There is a book and (is) a pen on the table.

В следующем предложении убираем ‘is’, а’are’ оставляем:
There are some books and (is)a pen on the table.

В следующем предложении убираем ‘are’, а’is’ оставляем:
There is a book and (are) some pens on the table.


be over
The lesson is over — урок окончен.
The debate is over — вопрос исчерпан 
integration is over — интеграл берётся по 
The concert is over — концерт окончен 
He is over fifty — ему за пятьдесят.
Cheer up! The worst is over — Выше нос! Худшее уже позади.
He is over polite — он в высшей степени вежливый человек
The scale is over crowded — тесная шкала
out loud — вслух 

Some pairs of adverbs have different meanings

deep = a long way down (He dug deep into the ground.)
deeply = greatly (The scientist was deeply respected.)
free = without cost (Children travel free on buses.)
freely = willingly (He spoke freely about his past.)
hard = with effort (He works hard.)
hardly = scarcely (I hardly see him.)
high = to / at a high level (The pilot flew high above the clouds.)
highly = very much (She is highly regarded by her employers.)
last = after all others (He got here last.)
lastly = finally (Lastly, read the instructions then do the test.)
late = not early (They arrived late.)
lately = recently (I haven’t seen him lately.)
near = close (I live near the school.)
nearly = almost (I have nearly finished.)
pretty = fairly (I thought the film was pretty awful.)
prettily = in a pretty way (She smiled prettily.)
short = suddenly (The driver stopped short.)
shortly = soon (He will be arriving shortly.)
wide = far away from the right point (He threw the ball wide.)
widely = to a large extent (It’s widely believed that the Prime Minister will resign soon.)

about to

Be about to (вот — вот) используется, чтобы говорить о вещах, которые будут происходить очень скоро:
     I’m about to eat. Can I phone you back?
Часто используется с  just:
     We’re just about to set off for a walk. Do you want to come?
При использовании в прошлом, be about to может ссылаться на вещи, которые должны были произойти, но не произошли:
     I was about to complain but he came over and apologised.
Не используем  be about to с выражениями времени:
     I was about to call you.
Not: I was about to call you in ten minutes.



Приобретать, получать (get + существительное или местоимение get = buy or find).
Становиться, переходить из состояния А в состояние Б (get + прилагательное).
Подвергаться действию, становиться (get + причастие прошедшего времени).
Перемещаться из одного места в другое (get + указание места)
Expression with Get
get + noun phrase
obtain or receive something
I’m trying to figure out how we can get some cash.
get + adjective
It got cold at night.
I’m really sorry. I’m getting confused.
get home
get here / there
get + to-phrase
arrive at a place
Did you just get home?
I don’t know if hell get here on time.
When you get to Broad Street, make a left.
get it
understand a story or joke
I don’t get it. (After hearing a story.)
get + noun phrase + participle
cause something to happen
It took a little while to get the car fixed.
»Become» is a common meaning for getting + adjective.
Fixed Expression with Get Meaning Example
get a chance have an opportunity I’m gonna chew gum until I get a chance to brush my teeth.
get a job find work Why don’t you get a job at one of the bike shops?
get some sleep sleep Okay, get some sleep and take care! [To a sick friend.]
get ahold of* contact I might try one more time to get a hold of Kathy.
get an idea of* become familiar with Have lunch with us, so you can get an idea of our family.
*In some expressions, the preposition of follows the noun phrase.

The Present Perfect or the Past Simple

Когда следует использовать Present Perfect, а не Past Simple? Например, «I have eaten», вместо «I ate» ?

Иногда слушатель должен выходить за рамки фразы и понять «намерение» говорящего.

Past Simple “ I ate ” акцентирует внимание на значении слова «eat» и передает момент сразу. Слушатель может легко интерпретировать смысл слова «eat» без каких-либо задних мыслей.

Present Perfect “I have eaten” не всегда говорит о прямом значении слова «eat». Вместо этого, это может быть одним из ваших намерений — вы все равно можете чувствовать себя голодным, или Вы на самом деле не ели, но говорите так, чтобы избежать еды с кем-то, или вы, возможно, решили пропустить вашу еду, решили ответить положительно чтобы избежать дальнейших разговоров или действий.
 Я уже поел / Я являюсь поевшим 

Stative and dynamic meanings

What is an action verb?

Action verbs express something that you do — you start the action and then you stop the action.

He is writing a letter. He starts the action when he picks up the pen and starts to write. When he puts the pen down, he stops the action.

More action (dynamic) verbs:
read, come, go, work, get, make, take, put, study.
(Most verbs are actions.)

What is a stative verb?

Stative verbs express situations. There is no need for action once the situation has started. You do not need to do anything. States are always true for as long as they continue.


(1) He is a teacher.
This is a state — a situation. He is always a teacher. He is a teacher after the lesson. He is a teacher when he is in the pub or when he is asleep in bed. He is a teacher until he changes his job.

He is teaching English.
This is an action. It starts when the lesson starts and finishes when the lesson finishes.

(2)  She has two children
This is a state. It started when the children were born. She does not have to do anything more. It is always true.

She is having a shower
This is an action. She has to do something. The action starts when she gets into the shower and turns on the water. When she turns off the water and gets out of the shower, the action is finished.

Common examples of stative verbs (or verbs with stative meanings)

Verbs expressing thoughts, feelings and senses:
like, love, hate, know, understand, feel, see, hear etc.

Verbs that are used to describe things or express possession:
be, have, own, need, seem, look, taste, smell, sound

Other common stative verbs (this is not a complete list)

believe, belong, contain, deserve, doubt, envy, exist, forget, imagine,
include, involve, possess, prefer, realize, recognize, suppose, suspect, want,wish

Confusing areas — verbs with both stative and dynamic meanings

As noted above with the example of ‘have’, some verbs have both dynamic and
stative meanings.

These include the following:

Verbs of the senses;

see (with your eyes)
see (visit)

taste (sense)
taste (try something to sample the taste)

smell (sense)
smell (put something next to your nose to sample the smell)

Verb to be

He is nice (permanent description)
He is being nice(temporary behaviour)

Love (general feeling)
She loves skiing

Love (enjoy)*
I’m loving it

*This meaning is not very common in British English and is included here simply
because students always ask about the use of this verb in the advertising slogan of a well-known fast food chain.

Stative (or State) Verb List

like know belong
love realise fit
hate suppose contain
want mean consist
need understand seem
prefer believe depend
agree remember matter
mind recognise see
own appear look (=seem)
sound taste smell
hear astonish deny
disagree please impress
satisfy promise surprise
doubt think (=have an opinion) feel (=have an opinion)
wish imagine concern
dislike be have
deserve involve include
lack measure (=have length etc) possess
owe weigh (=have weight)  

A verb which isn’t stative is called a dynamic verb, and is usually an action.

Some verbs can be both stative and dynamic:

be is usually a stative verb, but when it is used in the continuous it means ‘behaving’ or ‘acting’

  • you are stupid = it’s part of your personality
  • you are being stupid = only now, not usually
  • think (stative) = have an opinion
    I think that coffee is great
  • think (dynamic) = consider, have in my head
    what are you thinking about? I’m thinking about my next holiday
  • have (stative) = own
    I have a car
  • have (dynamic) = part of an expression
    I’m having a party / a picnic / a bath / a good time / a break
  • see (stative) = see with your eyes / understand
    I see what you mean
    I see her now, she’s just coming along the road
  • see (dynamic) = meet / have a relationship with
    I’ve been seeing my boyfriend for three years
    I’m seeing Robert tomorrow
  • taste (stative) = has a certain taste
    This soup tastes great
    The coffee tastes really bitter
  • taste (dynamic) = the action of tasting
    The chef is tasting the soup

    (‘taste’ is the same as other similar verbs such as ‘smell’)

All pronouns

  • all
  • another
  • any
  • anybody
  • anyone
  • anything
  • as
  • both
  • each
  • either
  • everybody
  • everyone
  • everything
  • few
  • he
  • her
  • hers
  • herself
  • him
  • himself
  • his
  • I
  • it
  • itself
  • many
  • me
  • mine
  • most
  • my
  • myself
  • neither
  • no one
  • nobody
  • none
  • nothing
  • one
  • other
  • others
  • our*
  • ours
  • ourselves
  • several
  • she
  • some
  • somebody
  • someone
  • something
  • such
  • that
  • thee
  • their*
  • theirs
  • them
  • themselves
  • these
  • they
  • thine
  • this
  • those
  • thou
  • thy*
  • us
  • we
  • what
  • whatever
  • which
  • whichever
  • who
  • whoever
  • whom
  • whomever
  • whose
  • you
  • your*
  • yours
  • yourself
  • yourselves


We use a/an with singular countable nouns:
• when we talk about one thing or person but we don’t say exactly which one:
Lucy’s reading a book.
There’s a supermarket near my house.
• to talk about someone’s job:
My mother is a teacher.
• to describe people or things:
Pip is a nice girl. That’s a good idea.
• in expressions with numbers:
I sleep eight hours a night.
Apples cost €3 a kilo.
Remember: We don’t use a/an with uncountable nouns (water, milk) or plural nouns (apples, books).
We can use the with singular, plural and uncountable nouns. We use the:
• when it is clear which person or thing we mean:
The boy over there is my brother. Where’s the sugar?
• when there is only one:
The Earth is round. Peter is in the garden.
• with the names of oceans (the Pacific Ocean), seas (the Red Sea), rivers (the Nile), mountain ranges (the Andes) and deserts (the Sahara Desert).
• with the names of some countries: the USA (United States of America), the UK (United Kingdom), the Netherlands
• with musical instruments:
He plays the piano.
• in some time expressions:
in the morning/afternoon/evening.
at the weekend.
But we say:
in January, at night, on Mondays
Zero article
We don’t use a or the:
• with names of people (Peter, Mr Hardy), continents (Africa), most countries (Spain), cities (Madrid), streets (West Street), lakes (Lake Michigan) and mountains (Mount Everest).
• with sports (basketball), games (chess), school subjects (Maths), meals (dinner) and languages (English).
• in these expressions:
Beth is at home/at school/in bed.
I go to school every day. I go by bus.

Согласование глаголов

The infinitive
The infinitive is the basic form of a verb. We use two forms of the infinitive
• the infinitive with ‘to’
I want to play a game.
• the infinitive without ‘to’
You’d better take a map with you.
We use the infinitive with ‘to’
• after these verbs:
advise expect plan
agree force prefer
 allow   forget   promise
 appear   hate 
She refuses to speak to him.
 arrange   help   seem

They asked me to play the piano at the school


 I hope to see you soon.

 begin   learn  stop 
 choose   like   want
 continue  manage 
  would like
We would like to have lunch now, please.
 decide   offer   would love
• with the expression too + adjective / adverb + infinitive
She’s too tired to go out tonight.
• The word ‘too’ before an adjective / adverb gives a negative meaning to the sentence.
It means ‘more than it should be’ or ‘more than is necessary*.
He is too young to drive. (= he isn’t allowed to drive because of his age)
• with the expression (not) adjective / adverb + enough + infinitive
It’s warm enough to play outside.
I am not tall enough to reach the shelf.
• The word ‘enough’ gives a positive meaning to the sentence. It means ‘just as much as it should be’ or ‘just as much as is necessary’.
He’s good enough to be a professional musician. (= he can be a professional musician if he wants to)
• with the expression it + to be + adjective + infinitive
It’s nice to go on a short holiday when you can.
It was interesting to learn that the temple dated back to the 4th century BC.
• with the expression subject + to be + adjective + infinitive
They were happy to offer me the job.
I’m sorry to hear you are not well.
She’s glad to be in the play.
Infinitive without ‘to’
We use the infinitive without ‘to’
• after the verbs let and make
I’ll let you use my computer if you are careful.
My music teacher made me play the same piece three times.
• with the expression would rather
I’d rather do this on my own if you don’t mind.
He’d rather stay in a hotel.
• with the expression had better
You’d better book the tickets as soon as possible.
She’d better not sing. She has an awful voice.
• after some modal verbs, such as could, may, might, must should
He must call his parents right now.
You shouldn’t wear my T-shirt without my permission.
• The verb help can be followed by both the infinitive with ‘to’ and the infinitive without ‘to’ It makes no difference in meaning.
Will you help me carry these bogs?
Will you help me to carry these bags?