The Present Perfect

The Present Perfect
     The perfect tenses in English explain the order of things. When we use present perfect, we are explaining what has happened up until now. Past perfect explains what had happened in the past before something else happened in the past.
And future perfect tells us what will have happened up to a certain point in the future.
Use
• We use the present perfect to talk about things we did in the recent past but have a result in the present:
We have put all the bags in the car. (They are in the car now.)
 
just, already, yet
• We often use just, already and yet when we talk about recent actions with the present perfect.
• We use just and already in positive sentences. They come after have/has and before the main verb.
A: Where are Mike and David?
B: They’ve just gone home.
A: Don’t forget to tell Anna about the party.
B: I’ve already told her.
• We use yet in negative sentences and questions. Yet comes at the end of the sentence or question.
A: Does Anna know about the party?
B: No, I haven’t told her yet.
A: Have you told Anna about the party yet?
B: Yes, I have.
• We often use the present perfect to talk about something that happened in the past, but we don’t say exactly when it happened. We often use it to talk about our experiences, the things we have or have not done in our lives.
I’ve visited theme park.
I’ve been on a water ride.
• We often use ever and never with the present perfect when we talk about our experiences.
• We use ever in questions.
Have you ever ridden on a roller coaster?
• We use never in positive sentences. Be careful: never has a negative meaning, but we use it with positive verbs.
I’ve never been on a water ride.
I haven’t been on a water ride.
I haven’t never been on a water ride.
 
Time markers
The time markers we use with the present perfect have different positions in the sentence.
just                   They’ve just come back from school
yet                    Have they called yet?
                         We haven’t finished yet.
for                    This shop has been here for ten years.
since                 I haven’t seen them since 2005.
ever /               Has it ever snowed in Mau?
never                She’s never thought about it.
so far                So far, I’ve written three emails.
                         They haven’t done anything so far.
recently /        I’ve read an interesting book recently.
lately                It hasn’t rained lately.
always              We’ve always liked your work.
Present perfect or past simple?
We use both the past simple and present perfect to talk about something that happened in the past. The difference is that
• we use the past simple to talk about something that happened at a specific time in the past. We either say or imply exactly when it happened.
• we use the present perfect to put emphasis on the fact that something has happened. We do not say when exactly it happened.
• Compare the examples:
I bought this CD last week.
They read this book when they were at school
I’ve bought a new CD.
They’ve read this book.
• We use the present perfect to talk about our experiences to put emphasis on what we have / haven’t done. When we ask specific questions or give specific details about them we use the past simple.
‘Have you ever seen an elephant?’
Yes, I have.’
‘Where did you see it?’
‘I sow it at London Zoo.’
‘Really? When did you go there?’
‘In 2007.’
Являюсь
     Форма Present Perfect, в отличие от формы Past Simple, не может сочетаться со словами, указывающими на действие в прошлом. Например, если в предложении «Yesterday she got a letter from her sister» форму Past Simple got заменить на форму Present Perfect has gotten, то полученное предложение — «Yesterday she has gotten a letter from her sister» — окажется неправильным: по-английски так не говорят. Поскольку форма Present Perfect выражает не прошедшее время, она не может сочетаться со словами, указывающими на действие в прошлом.
Употребление Present Perfect
1)Событие произошло в недавнем прошлом, мы видим результат, мы не говорим когда.

 They have bought a new house.
Они являются купившими новый дом.
(Когда они его купили? Мы не знаем когда. Конкретное время неважно.)

  house-300x300

I have spilt the paint.
Я являюсь пролившим краску.
(Когда я пролил? Мы не говорим когда. Мы видим настоящий результат.)

 Orange

 I have read this book.
Я являюсь  прочитавшим эту книгу.

 Books

 I have seen this movie.
Я являюсь  видевшим этот фильм.

 moviepopcorn_2

 I have travelled a lot.
Я являюсь путешествующим много.

 TravelConcept3

I have lost my keys.
Я являюсь потерявшим мои ключи.

 keys

He has paid for me.
Он является заплатившим за меня.

 paid

He has fed our dog.
Он является  покормившим нашу собаку.

 feeding_dog

Такси является прибывшим.

 taxi
2)Сообщаем новости с помощью Present Perfect
BBC: Mike Tyson has bitten off Holyfield’s ear.  
3)Говорим со словами just, already, yet.
 The dog has just eaten your breakfast.  
 Have you been to the new library yet?  
4)Говорим о событиях , которые произошли в жизни человека до текущего момента(сейчас).
5)Говорим о настоящем действии, а затем о его продолжительности.
6)Используем с выражениями, которые значат до сейчас : — говорим о действиях которые произошли в незаконченный период времени. — в последнее время — это первый раз
7) Употребляется в общих вопросах при проверке исполнения, от ответа на вопрос (» Да » или » Нет «) зависят дальнейшие действия участников.
 Have you learned the rule?  
 Have you read the text?  
 Have you done your homework?  
 What have you done?  
 Have you finished the test?  
 Have you aired the room?  
 Have you rung him?  
 Have you bought the tickets?  
8) Употребляется при определении присутствия или отсутствия человека в каком-то месте.
 Max has recently arrived from Paris.  
 Is Tom at home? No, he has gone to the stadium.  
Has Natasha come yet? Yes, she has already arrived.  
 Have you seen Lena? No, I haven’t seen her today.  
Max hasn’t arrived yet.  
 The school is empty. Everybody has gone home.  
 They don’t live here any more. They have moved into a new appartment.  
9) Употребляется, когда результат какого-либо действия очевиден, или он подчёркивается говорящим . С глаголами begin, start, finish.
 Look! Our neighbours have bought a new car.  
 Look! They have just got married.  
 Look! The taxi has already arrived.  
 All the guests have arrived.  
 They are sitting in the garden.  
 Are they still having lunch? No, they’ve just finished.  
 Don’t buy the tickets. I’ve bought them  
 I’ve just baked an apple pie.Would you like a piece?  
 Someone has switched on the TV ( I hear).  
 The match has started.  
10) Present Perfect употребляется для обозначения событий или действий, имеющих важные последствия . Последствия эти могут быть как приятные, так и неприятные.
 Prices have gone up.  
 I have lost my purse.  
 My sister has broken all the cups.  
 The company has gone bankrupt.  
11) Употребляется для обозначения результата каких-либо сложных или длительных усилий (или отсутствия такого результата).
 I have passed my exams at last .  
 «Spartak» has won today .  
 The criminal has been finally arrested .  
 I haven’t passed my driving test.  
12) Употребляется при объяснении причины какого-либо явления.
 You are very brown, Natasha! I’ve been to the Crimea.  
 Your hair looks nice! I have just gone to the hairdresser’s.  
13) активно используется в языке средств массовой информации.
 The Prime Minister has said …  
 The strikes have started in Wales.  
 There has been an air-crash in Indonesia.  
14) Употребляется, когда сообщают о каких-то достижениях, результатах, опыте.
 My friend has travelled a lot.  
 Не has been to England twice.  
 Не has also been to Egypt.  
 Не has ridden a camel there.  
 She has won Wimbledon twice.  
 Не is the most interesting person I’ve ever met .  
15) Употребляется, когда выясняют наличие какого-либо опыта, достижений.
 Have you ever tasted kvas?  
 Have you ever been to Siberia?  
 Have you ever been to England before?  
 Have you seen the Kremlin?  
16) Употребляется, когда сообщают о том, что не удалось или не довелось сделать, или не удалось / не пришлось где-то побывать.
 Не has never flown on an airplane.  
 I’ve never travelled abroad.  
17) Употребляется для обозначения действия или состояния, начавшегося в прошлом и длящегося по настоящее время.
 My grandmother has had this umbrella for 50 years.  
 I have lived here all my life.  
 I’ve been here since morning.  
 I’ve always loved dogs.  
 How long have you worked here?  
 We’ve been friends since school.  

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